The length of the chain was standardized in 1620 by Edmund Gunter to exactly four rods. [15] [16] The fields were measured in acres, which were one chain (four stems) times one furlong (ten chains in the UK). [17] The terms cane, pole, cane and rood screen have been used as units of area, and perch is also used as a unit of volume. As a unit of area, a square pole (the pole is standardized to 16 1⁄2 feet or 5 1⁄2 yards) corresponds to a square stick, 30 1⁄4 square meters (25.29 square meters) or 1⁄160 acres. There are 40 square perches at a rood screen (for example, a rectangular area of 40 stems times a stem) and 160 square perches at one morning (for example, a rectangular area of 40 stems by 4 stems). This unit is usually referred to as a pole or pole, although square pole and square pole are the most accurate terms. Confusingly, the stem was also sometimes used as a unit of area to designate a rood screen. Nevertheless, the British decided to gradually abolish the term as a legal entity from 1965. Legal descriptions always state the county and state in which the property is located. There are 3 independent methods that can be used to determine the exact location and boundaries of a property: The chain is a unit of length equal to 66 feet (22 yards). It is divided into 100 links[1],[2] or 4 stems.

There are 10 chains in a furlong and 80 chains in a mile. [2] In metric dimensions, it is 20.1168 m long. [2] In a broader sense, chain position (running distance) is the distance along a curved or straight survey line from a fixed starting point, as indicated by an odometer. An acre is defined as the area of 10 square chains (i.e. an area of a chain around a furlong) and derives from the shapes of New Tech ploughs[2] and the desire to quickly examine the church`s confiscated land into a set of squares for quick sale[3] by Henry VIII`s agents; Buyers simply wanted to know what they were buying, while Henry raised money for the wars against Scotland and France. [3] Therefore, the surveyor`s chain and survey rods or rods (the pole) have been used for several centuries in Britain and in many other countries influenced by British practices such as North America and Australia. At the time of the Industrial Revolution and the acceleration of land sales, surveys on canals and railways, etc. Survey rods, such as those used by George Washington, were usually made of dimensionally stable metal – wrought iron stretched semi-flexible connectable rod shaft (not steel), so that the four folded elements of a chain could be easily transported by brushes and branches when carried by a single man of a surveyor`s crew. With a direct relationship to the length of a surveyor`s chain and the sides of an acre and square (mile), they were tools commonly used by surveyors, if only to establish a known parcellable base base in rough terrain, which then served as a reference line for instrumental triangulation (theodolite). Measures are a necessary part of any legal description. The old measurements were based on chains and rods because surveyors used them to measure distances. The following list shows the relationship between common units used to measure distance and area in real estate: The other legal description system is the lot and block system (also known as the registered flat system), which refers to specific parcels identified by a lot number or letter, and the block or subdivision platform in which the property is located.

The block itself is located using the metes-and-bounds system or the rectangular surveying system. To identify a particular parcel, the lot and block system shows the lot and block number, the name or number of the subdivision platform, and the name of the county and state. Some properties may include descriptions that include elevations. Surveys must also be used for so-called airfields or underground rights. For example, condos on the upper or lower floors can be described in terms of a date, which is a point, line or area from which heights are measured. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) refers to a date defined as the mean sea level in New York Harbor. In Vermont, the standard width of highways and state and city roads is three poles (49.5 feet or 15.0876 m). [27] Stems are also found on older legal descriptions of parcels of land in the United States that follow the land survey method; [28] As this actual legal description of rural real estate shows, the name perch derives from the ancient Roman unit, the pertica. The measure also has a relationship with military pike of the same size. Both measures[1] date back to the sixteenth century[3], when pike was still used in national armies. The tool has been largely replaced by electronic tools such as surveying lasers (lidar) and optical target devices for surveying countries. Surveying rods and chains are still used on rough terrain with dense vegetation, where laser or other optical measurements are difficult or impossible.

In dialectal English, the term lug has also been used. [4] [5] The word stem comes from the original “rod”, which has similarities with the Old Norse “rudda”, meaning “club”. Interestingly, the term is linguistically related to the Dutch “Rood”. However, a “rood screen” determined an area of forty square posts, which in turn represents a quarter of an acre of real estate. Again, this equates to about 10.9 square feet, or 1.01 square meters. In addition, the term referred to a square pole, equivalent to 25.29 square meters or 272.25 square feet. Contracts of sale, deeds, mortgages, and trust deeds require a legal description of the property that is legally sufficient to be binding, meaning that the description would allow a qualified surveyor to determine the exact boundaries of the property. The legal description of a property does not include the buildings within it – only the property lines. The legal description is also an important determinant in determining the price of the property. Although the address is necessary to locate the property, it is not sufficient to identify the property. In fact, addresses are often renamed over time and even physical boundaries can change course, like that of a local stream. Note that since a property is necessarily limited in area, any description of this property must necessarily form a closed area.

In America, you will find rods in the old legal descriptions of areas that follow in the footsteps of the Metes and Bounds surveying system. Legal descriptions are usually created by a licensed land surveyor who is trained and licensed to locate and determine the legal description of a property. Only a licensed surveyor should create descriptions of objects, as inaccuracies can lead to title issues later on. The land surveyor prepares 2 documents: a survey containing the description of the property and a survey sketch showing the location and dimensions of the parcel. If the location, size and shape of buildings on the property are also indicated, then it is called a one-time survey. Personnel were phased out as a legal unit of measurement in the United Kingdom as part of a ten-year measurement process that began on 24 May 1965. [20] The chain of surveyors is first mentioned in 1579[7] and appears in an image in 1607. [8] In 1593, the English mile was redefined by a law of Queen Elizabeth I to 5,280 feet to conform to agricultural practice. In 1620, polymath Edmund Gunter developed a method for accurately surveying the land using a 66-foot-long, 100-link chain of surveyors. [9] The 66-foot unit, which consisted of four rods or rods,[10] took the name chain. In 1675 it was accepted, and Ogilby wrote: Today, the dimensions of the land are generally in acres.

Each acre is equivalent to 43,560 square feet or 10 square chains or 160 square poles. Yet many people cannot imagine the size of a hectare. A lot of exactly one acre and perfectly square measures 208.71 feet on each side. A rectangular acre 100 feet wide would have a length of 435.60 feet. Each square mile has exactly 640 acres, which is also a section below the township system. Although older surveying systems seem to use strange distances, most can easily be converted to acres. You will surely not come across the stem as a widely used term. Nevertheless, some areas use it, such as recreational canoeing. There they use maps to measure the transport of canoes, and they use rods as units.

A canoe is roughly equivalent to a cane. In addition, sellers and buyers apply rods in pipeline easements when referring to the purchase of an easement price per pole. Although the staff is no longer widely used, it is still used in some specialties. In recreational canoeing, maps measure portages (overland routes on which canoes must be transported) in canes; Typical canoes are about a cane long. [24] The term is also widely used in the acquisition of pipeline easements, as easement offers are often expressed in terms of “price per barrel”. [25] LEGAL DESCRIPTION: From 45 stems east and 44 stems north of southwest corner 1/4 southwest 1/4; thence to the north 36 stems; thence to the east 35 stems; thence southerly 36 stems; thence west 35 rods to the starting point, Manistique Township, Schoolcraft County, Michigan. [29] Investigative measures are also generally given in miles or feet. This measurement system is now easier for people to understand, but even this system can be converted into chains and rods. For example, a quarter of a thousand measures 20 chains or 80 rods. A mile or 5280 feet can also be specified as 80 chains or 320 rods.